Metamateterial-by-Design: Theory, Methods, and Applications
Open Access
Issue
EPJ Applied Metamaterials
Volume 3, 2016
Metamateterial-by-Design: Theory, Methods, and Applications
Article Number 8
Number of page(s) 6
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/epjam/2016006
Published online 13 September 2016

© F. Mazeh et al., Published by EDP Sciences, 2016

Licence Creative Commons
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1 Introduction

Metamaterials (MTM) are artificial periodic structures with unusual electromagnetic properties fabricated with a negative effective dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability. This corresponds to a new class named Left-Handed (LH) MTM which have gained significant interest in many guided waves and radiated applications. LH materials are so named because of the LH triad formed by the electric field, magnetic field, and wave vector leading to an antiparallel phase and group velocities [1]. Going through the transmission line (TL) approach, a LH TL is made up of periodic series capacitances and shunt inductances which is the dual of the conventional TL known as Right-handed (RH) TL. But a purely left-handed (LH) TL doesn’t exist due to the natural parasitic induced current and voltage which are modeled by a series inductance and a shunt capacitance. This was the motivation for introducing the term CRLH (Composite Right-Left Handed) TL. The dual concept of such CRLH was introduced in [2]. However, the dual CRLH structure is an idealization that cannot be exactly recognized. A real dual CRLH MTM is in fact a double-Lorentz (DL) medium and this material has an intrinsic tri-band property that can be used to design various tri-band microwave components [3]. Both effective material parameters μr and εr of the corresponding line show Lorentz-type dispersion.

Many microwave components are based on quarter wavelength transmission lines as Branch-Line Couplers (BLC) [4]. But conventional quarter wavelength TLs known as RH TLs can operate only at their desired frequency and odd harmonics. Since wireless communication systems as GSM-UMTS systems have operational non-harmonic frequencies, the conventional BLC can’t be an actual solution for them. Metamaterial (MTM) with its unusual properties helped to overcome many problems in the microwave world; one of which is increasing the number of operating frequencies. Tri-band components are helpful to reduce the size and the number of devices used in recent multi-band telecommunication systems [5].

The natural BLC is modified by replacing the conventional transmission lines TLs known as right-handed transmission lines RH TLs with Double-Lorentz DL TLs to have a new one with three arbitrary operating frequencies. The advantage of using DL TLs over RH TLs is shown in the flexibility in the phase response diagram for which we can intercept a desired pair of phases at any arbitrary triple frequencies (f1, f2, f3) for tri-band operation so that f2 and f3 are not necessary to be multiples of f1. Tri-band components are helpful to reduce the size and the number of devices used in recent multi-band telecommunication systems.

Two, three, or four port networks symmetric with respect to one or two planes are extremely implemented in RF and microwave devices. In [6], a full design of a DL TL was presented with useful design equations and an implementation of a tri-band branch-line coupler was done using such type of MTM in [7]. Even-odd mode analysis is a classic topic for solving the scattering parameters of a symmetric circuit. A full analysis of symmetrical two port network and four port network is done in [8] and [9] respectively. The implementation of DL TL MTM using circuit models has been well investigated in the past few years but analyzed without taking the symmetrical advantage. However, calculations will be well simplified if a symmetric structure is divided into sub-circuits. Since DL TLs MTM can be implemented using symmetrical model, one can analyze only half the circuit. In [10], an even-odd mode excitation is done for a bi-symmetrical dual-band BLC but not based on MTM. The main objective of this paper is to verify the use of even-odd mode analysis of metamaterial for a two port symmetric balanced structure of a DL TL to be extended in the use of a tri-band BLC which is a symmetrical four port network.

2 Double-Lorentz transmission line metamaterial

2.1 Double-Lorentz transmission line approach

The unit cell of the artificial DL TL consists of lumped elements LR and CL that are parallel in the series path and then of LL and CR that are series in the shunt path, a parasitic series inductance LP and a shunt capacitance CP as shown in Figure 1. A DL TL is designed by cascading periodically this unit cell with a condition that this cell is much smaller than the guided wavelength (λg) in the frequency range of operation. Mainly, it is examined in the homogeneous limit where (∆/λg) → 0.

thumbnail Figure 1.

Unit-cell of artificial double-Lorentz (DL) transmission line (TL).

As shown in Figure 1, the unit cell series impedance Zse and shunt admittance Ysh are given by (1) and (2):(1)where and .

(2)where and .

The constitutive parameters μeff and εeff are plotted for a specific set of LC parameters in Figure 2.

thumbnail Figure 2.

DL TL metamaterial constitutive parameters for a specific set of LC parameters.

The DL structure can be balanced so that no gap exists in the transition from LH medium to RH medium. There are two conditions to reach such case:(3)

Under the balanced condition, the dispersion relation and the characteristic impedance are given by (4) and (5):(4)

where .

(5)

2.2 Tri-band design procedure

The TL has six variables LP, CP, LR, CR, LL, and CL that should be calculated first. If we assume that the operating frequencies are chosen as f1, f2, and f3, the phase shift of quarter wavelength DL TL at each frequency is given by (6)(8):(6)

(7)

(8)

The phase shift is related to β by φi = −βiN∆ where N is the number of unit cells and i = (1, 2, 3). So, the dispersion relation can be written in the form (9):(9)

2.3 Implementation

We noted that a DL TL is obtained by cascading the unit cell shown in Figure 1. However, to have equal input and output impedances, a balanced symmetric structure is recommended instead. A schematic of a symmetric DL TL with two unit cells is shown in Figure 3. Surface Mount Technology is used for the LH and RH components while the sub-section that corresponds to the parasitic elements is implemented using microstrip lines.

thumbnail Figure 3.

Schematic of a symmetric DL TL with two unit cells.

The procedure of implementation is summarized as follows:

  1. Choose f1, f2, and f3.

  2. Solve the system of equations obtained in (9) for the unknown values of ω0, ω, and ωp.

  3. With the help of ω0, ω, ωp, and Z0, Calculate the values of LP, CP, LL, CL, LR, and CR which are derived to be:

(10)

(11)

(12)

  1. Be sure that the operating frequencies are not found in the stop-band in the dispersion diagram between right-handed media at lower frequencies and left-handed media at higher ones. Otherwise, increase the number of unit cells chosen.

  2. Use the values of LP and CP to find the lengths and widths of the microstrip lines using standard microstrip formulas.

3 Even-odd mode analysis of a DL TL

3.1 Symmetrical two-port network

A symmetrical network can be defined by a one having a plane of symmetry. Calculations will be well simplified when a two port network is divided into two structures mirroring each other [11]. This is a main requirement in analyzing complex symmetric structures. When an even excitation is applied to the network, the two applied signals at ports 1 and 2 are in phase. This creates a virtual open circuit symmetrical interface (“magnetic wall”). Similarly, under an odd excitation where the two applied signals are out of phase, the symmetrical interface is a virtual short circuit (“electric wall”) as shown in Figure 4.

thumbnail Figure 4.

Two port network (a) even-mode excitation (b) odd-mode excitation.

3.2 Scattering parameters

The network analysis will be simplified by analyzing each one port separately and then determining the two-port network parameters from the even and odd mode network parameters. The two port S-parameters are established where the subscripts “e” and “o” refer to the even mode and odd mode respectively [12]:(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

3.3 Even-odd mode of a DL TL

A schematic of a symmetric 50 Ω DL TL using the procedure above is shown in Figure 5.

thumbnail Figure 5.

Schematic of a 50 Ω DL TL for: L1 = 16.25 mm, CR = 0.55 pF, CL = 7.24 pF, LR = 1.205 nH, LL = 18.24 nH.

For even mode excitation, we can bisect the network with open circuits at the symmetrical interface as shown in Figure 6a. For odd mode excitation, we can bisect the network with short circuits at the symmetrical interface as shown in Figure 6b.

thumbnail Figure 6.

(a) Even mode excitation, (b) odd mode excitation.

3.4 Simulation results

After bisecting the DL TL into two symmetric halves and applying the even-odd mode on the obtained two networks, simulation is done to find the S11 parameter for each one alone using [13]. However, the reflection coefficient S11 and the transmission coefficient S21 for the full DL TL can be directly obtained from (13) to (14) respectively and plot in Figure 7. The operating frequencies are 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, and 2100 MHz where the phase response is −90°, +90°, −90° respectively.

thumbnail Figure 7.

(a) Reflection coefficient of the DL TL using S11-even and S11-odd, (b) phase response S21 of the DL TL.

4 Even-odd mode analysis of a BLC

4.1 Tri-band BLC

Following the previous procedure in Section 2.3, a BLC is implemented using 50 Ω and 35 Ω DL TLs using the schematic shown in Figure 5. The microstrip substrate used is FR4 with permittivity 4.4, thickness 0.8 mm, and copper thickness 18 μm. The operating frequencies are chosen to be 0.9 GHz, 1.8 GHz, and 2.1 GHz. The frequency dependence of the element components causes variations in the characteristic impedance of the DL TL, which results in an amplitude imbalance between the two output ports. To compensate this effect, a tuning stub is added to the 50 Ω DL TLs preserving the symmetric structure also. The length of the stub is tuned and found to be 2 mm. For more details, see [7].

4.2 Even-odd mode of a tri-band BLC

For a tri-band BLC, the structure will become more complex. To simplify calculation, let us consider the full symmetrical four port network with XX and YY symmetry axes. This is the case of a bisymmetrical structure where we can decompose the network into four single port sub-circuits (even-even, even-odd, odd-even, and odd-odd) by the double application of the even-odd mode decomposition [14] as shown in Figure 8. The subscript 35 and 50 are used for the 35 Ω and 50 Ω TLs respectively.

thumbnail Figure 8.

Reduced subcircuits (a) even-even (b) even-odd (c) odd-even (d) odd-odd for LR-35 = 0.87 nH, CR-35 = 0.8 pF, LL-35 = 12 nH, CL-35 = 10.2 pF, L1-35 = 16.3 mm, W1-35 = 2.63 mm, LR-50 = 1.3 nH, CR-50 = 0.5 pF, LL-50 = 18.1 nH, CL-50 = 7.2 pF, W1-50 = 1.51 mm, L1-50 = 17 mm, Ls = 2 mm.

The four port S-parameters are established as function of the single port networks parameters where the subscripts e and o refer to the even mode and odd mode respectively:(17)

(18)

(19)

(20)

4.3 Simulation results

After bisecting the BLC into four symmetric sections and applying equations (1) to (4), the simulated S-parameters are shown in Figure 9. The operating frequencies are 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, and 2100 MHz where the phase difference between the two output ports is ±90° ±3.5°. Figure 9 shows that the tri-band is well achieved where return losses as well as isolations are larger than 14 dB at each operating frequency; however, S21 and S31 are of −3 dB ± 0.5 dB.

thumbnail Figure 9.

Simulated S-parameters of the tri-band BLC using the single port sub-circuit parameter.

5 Conclusion

In this paper, an even-odd mode analysis of a DL TL metamaterial is presented. This DL TL has a tri-band property to be used in the design of tri-band microwave devices. So, this analysis was done to simplify calculations for complex circuits especially to those of periodic structure with much number of units as well as for complex structures used in EM simulators. This analysis has been also illustrated by a 50 Ω, λ/4 DL TL and a general description of any two port network is given first. Then, we extended our study to the application of a tri-band BLC using also even-odd mode analysis with bisymmetrical symmetry.

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by the Lebanese University (LU) and by the National Council for Scientific Research Lebanon (CNRS).

References

  1. C. Caloz, T. Itoh, Electromagnetic metamaterials, transmission line theory and microwave applications, Wiley and IEEE Press, Hoboken, New Jersey, 2005. [CrossRef] (In the text)
  2. C. Caloz, Dual composite right/left-handed (D-CRLH) transmission line metamaterial, IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 16, 11 (2006) 585–587. [CrossRef] (In the text)
  3. C. Caloz, I. Wolff, Double-Lorentz transmission line metamaterial and its application to tri-band devices, IEEE Microwave Symposium, Hawaii, 2007. (In the text)
  4. D. Pozar, Microwave Engineering (4th ed.), John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken. (In the text)
  5. S. Tanigawa, K. Hayashi, T. Fuji, T. Kawai and I. Ohta, Tri-band/broadband matching techniques for 3-dB branch line couplers, IEEE Microwave Conference, pp. 560–563, October 2006. (In the text)
  6. F. Mazeh, H. Ayad, J. Jomaah, Design and optimization of a double-Lorentz transmission line for tri-band applications, IEEE Microwave Symposium, Marrakech, 2014. (In the text)
  7. F. MAzeh, H. Ayad, A. khalil, M. Fadllallah, J. Jomaah, A tri-band branch-line coupler design using double-Lorentz transmission line metamaterial, Asia Pacific Microwave Conference, Japan, 2014. (In the text)
  8. Leo G. Maloratsky, Passive RF and Microwave Integrated Circuits, Elsevier, 2004. (In the text)
  9. J. Reed, G.J. Wheeler, A method of analysis of symmetrical four-port networks, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 4, 10 (1956) 246–252. [CrossRef] (In the text)
  10. I. Prudyus and V. Oborzhytskyy, Design of dual-band two-branch-line couplers with arbitrary coupling coefficients in bands, Institute of Telecommunications, Radioelectronics and Electronic Devices, Lviv Polytechnic National University, December 2014 (In the text)
  11. F. Mazeh, H. Ayad, M. Haroun, K. Jomaah, F. Ndagijimana, Even-odd mode of a tri-band double-Lorentz transmission line metamaterial, IWMb, Paris, 2015. (In the text)
  12. J.S. Hong, M.J. Lancaster, Microstrip filters for RF/microwave applications, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2001. [CrossRef] (In the text)
  13. www.awrcorp.com/Microwave Office. (In the text)
  14. F. Mazeh, H. Ayad, M. Fadlalah, F. Ndagijimana, J. Jomaah, Even-odd mode analysis of a tri-band branch-line coupler based on double-Lorentz transmission lines, Lebanese Association for the Advancement of Science, Lebanon, 2015. (In the text)

Cite this article as: Mazeh F, Ayad H, Fadlallah M, Joumaa K, Jomaah J & Ndagijimana F: Even-odd mode of a double-Lorentz metamaterial and its application to a tri-band branch-line coupler. EPJ Appl. Metamat. 2016, 3, 8.

All Figures

thumbnail Figure 1.

Unit-cell of artificial double-Lorentz (DL) transmission line (TL).

In the text
thumbnail Figure 2.

DL TL metamaterial constitutive parameters for a specific set of LC parameters.

In the text
thumbnail Figure 3.

Schematic of a symmetric DL TL with two unit cells.

In the text
thumbnail Figure 4.

Two port network (a) even-mode excitation (b) odd-mode excitation.

In the text
thumbnail Figure 5.

Schematic of a 50 Ω DL TL for: L1 = 16.25 mm, CR = 0.55 pF, CL = 7.24 pF, LR = 1.205 nH, LL = 18.24 nH.

In the text
thumbnail Figure 6.

(a) Even mode excitation, (b) odd mode excitation.

In the text
thumbnail Figure 7.

(a) Reflection coefficient of the DL TL using S11-even and S11-odd, (b) phase response S21 of the DL TL.

In the text
thumbnail Figure 8.

Reduced subcircuits (a) even-even (b) even-odd (c) odd-even (d) odd-odd for LR-35 = 0.87 nH, CR-35 = 0.8 pF, LL-35 = 12 nH, CL-35 = 10.2 pF, L1-35 = 16.3 mm, W1-35 = 2.63 mm, LR-50 = 1.3 nH, CR-50 = 0.5 pF, LL-50 = 18.1 nH, CL-50 = 7.2 pF, W1-50 = 1.51 mm, L1-50 = 17 mm, Ls = 2 mm.

In the text
thumbnail Figure 9.

Simulated S-parameters of the tri-band BLC using the single port sub-circuit parameter.

In the text

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